High consanguinity rates, poor access to accurate diagnostic tests, and costly therapies are the main causes of increased burden of lysosomal storage disorders (LSDs) in developing countries. Therefore, there is a major unmet need for accurate and economical diagnostic tests to facilitate diagnosis and consideration of therapies before irreversible complications occur.
In a cross-country study, we utilized dried blood spots (DBS) of 1,033 patients clinically suspected to harbor LSDs for enzymatic diagnosis using modified fluorometric assays from March 2013 through May 2015.

Results were validated by demonstrating reproducibility, testing in different sample types (leukocytes/plasma/skin fibroblast), mutation study, or measuring specific biomarkers. Thirty percent (307/1,033) were confirmed to have one of the LSDs tested. Reference intervals established unambiguously identified affected patients. Correlation of DBS results with other biological samples (n = 172) and mutation studies (n = 74) demonstrated 100% concordance in Gaucher, Fabry, Tay Sachs, Sandhoff, Niemann-Pick, GM1, Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL), Fucosidosis, Mannosidosis, Mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) II, IIIb, IVa, VI, VII, and I-Cell diseases, and 91.4% and 88% concordance in Pompe and MPS-I, respectively. Gaucher and Pompe are the most common LSDs in India and Pakistan, followed by MPS-I in both India and Sri Lanka. Study demonstrates utility of DBS for reliable diagnosis of LSDs.

Diagnostic accuracy (97.6%) confirms veracity of enzyme assays. Adoption of DBS will overcome significant hurdles in blood sample transportation from remote regions. DBS enzymatic and molecular diagnosis should become the standard of care for LSDs to make timely diagnosis, develop personalized treatment/monitoring plan, and facilitate genetic counseling.

Published in JIMD Reports.

Authors / *corresponding author
*Verma J. 1, Thomas DC. 2, Kasper DC. 3, Sharma S. 2, Puri RD. 2, Bijarnia-Mahay S. 2, Mistry PK 4, Verma IC. 2.

1 Biochemical Genetics, Centre of Medical Genetics, Sir Ganga Ram Hospital, Rajinder Nagar, New Delhi, 110060, India. j4verma@yahoo.com.
2 Biochemical Genetics, Centre of Medical Genetics, Sir Ganga Ram Hospital, Rajinder Nagar, New Delhi, 110060, India.
3 Clinical Institute of Laboratory Medicine, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, Vienna, 1090, Austria.
4 Department of Internal Medicine (Digestive Diseases), Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, 06520-8019, USA.