Background: Fabry disease (FD) is a rare X-linked lysosomal storage disease caused by mutations in the α-galactosidase A (GLA) gene causing deficiency of α-galactosidase A which results in progressive glycosphingolipid accumulation, especially globotriaosylceramide (Gb3), in body liquids and lysosomes. In a large cohort of FD patients, we aimed to establish genotype/phenotype relations as indicated by serum LysoGb3 (deacylated Gb3).

Methods: In 69 consecutive adult FD patients (males: n=28 (41%)) with a GLA-mutation confirmed diagnosis, we conducted a multidisciplinary clinical characterization during their routine annual examinations, and measured serum LysoGb3 levels by high-sensitive electrospray ionization liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

Results: Serum levels of LysoGb3 were significantly higher in Classic compared with Later-Onset phenotype and higher in the latter compared with controls, both in males (52 [40-83] vs 9.5 [4.5-20] vs 0.47 [0.41-0.61] ng/ml, P<0.001) and in females (9.9 [7.9-14] vs 4.9 [1.6-4.9] vs 0.41 [0.33-0.48] ng/ml, P<0.001), respectively. Multivariate linear regression analysis showed that LysoGb3 levels were independently associated with, serum creatinine (β=0.09, 95%CI 0.04-0.13, P<0.001) and the presence of cardiomyopathy (β=25, 95%CI 9.8-41, P=0.002). LysoGb3 levels were higher in males with frame-shift and nonsense mutations than in males with missense mutations (84 [72-109] vs 41 [37-52] ng/ml, P=0.002). Conclusion: LysoGb3 relates to disease severity, enzyme replacement response, and to the genotype severity in males. LysoGb3 supports identifying patients at risk who require intensive monitoring and treatment. LysoGb3 appears to be one marker of metabolic phenotyping of FD.

Read the complete article about  Genotype, Phenotype and Disease severity_FabryDisease

Published in Molecular Genetics and Metabolism.

Authors / *corresponding author

*Albina Nowak a , Thomas P. Mechtler b, Thorsten Hornemann c, Joanna Gawinecka c, Eva Theswet a, Max J. Hilz d, David C. Kasper b

a Department of Internal Medicine, University Hospital Zurich and University of Zurich, Rämistrasse 100, 8091 Zürich, Switzerland;;
b ARCHIMED Life Science, Leberstrasse 20, 1110  Vienna, Austria;;
c Institute for Clinical Chemistry, University Hospital Zurich and University of Zurich, Rämistrasse 100, 8091 Zürich, Switzerland;;
d University College London, Institute of Neurology, Queen Square, London, WC1N 3BG, United Kingdom;